Latest News in Science Week-01 December 2018

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Health, History, Research, Science, Space

YouTube video for Science Week-1, December 2018

He Jiankui

1. The Scientist Behind First “CRISPR BABIES” He Jiankui Has Gone Missing

The Geneticist who recently used CRISPR-Cas9 to edit genome of human babies which provoked anger and serious criticism in scientific community has not been seen in public since his last appearance at Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing in Hong Kong.

Chinese media stated, the geneticist’s position is currently mysterious. He may be under house arrest at Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, China, his employer institute. Though, the University has denied the claim.

Source:

South China Morning Post

https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/2176109/university-denies-chinese-frankenstein-has-been-detained-over

Water hydrogel

2. Amazing New Hydro-Tech Devise That Can Harvest Water from Dry Desert Air

Scientists in King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia has a major breakthrough and developed a remarkable sodium chloride (NaCl) hydrogel-based device that stores water and releases it upon heating.

The cheap and commercially affordable hydrogel stores water overnight from air with the help of NaCl, and releases it in a sunny day when needed aided by carbon nanotubes.

Reference:

Li, R., et al., Hybrid Hydrogel with High Water Vapor Harvesting Capacity for Deployable Solar-Driven Atmospheric Water Generator. 2018. 52(19): p. 11367-11377.

3. Witness The Most Powerful Black Hole Collision and Detection of Four Gravitational Waves in Astronomical History

Astronomers at Gravitational Waves Physics and Astronomy Workshop, at the University of Maryland in the United States declares the detection of four new gravitational waves from the most powerful black hole collision in the history of astronomy.

This new discovery from Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)-VIRGO team gets total number of detection of gravitational waves to 11 since 2015. 11 from binary black hole mergers and one from neutron star merger.

Credits:

The Conversation

https://theconversation.com/new-detections-of-gravitational-waves-brings-the-number-to-11-so-far-107962

4. OSIRIS-Rex spacecraft Has Finally Reached Asteroid Bennu After Spending Two years in Dark Space

NASA probe OSIRIS-Rex Reaches to Empire State Building-size carbonaceous asteroid called Bennu from early solar system around 4.5 billion years ago, will maneuver for next 18 months, and finally collect 2Kg of rock sample by its robotic arm called TAGSAM and bring back home for analysis of early solar system.

This asteroid (size of 0.05% mass of Mount Everest) has a very weak gravity for that you jump over its north pole and will be kicked off the surface hurtling into the dark void. Hence, spacecraft orbiting its surface is a tricky part says Coralie Adam, an engineer at aerospace company KinetX.

Credits:

Washington Post

https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2018/12/03/nasa-is-about-grab-piece-an-asteroid-thats-even-harder-than-it-sounds/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.d1eafec39fc1

Cave Art with amputated fingers

5. In Wake of Discovery of Cave art in Last Month, Archaeologists Hit Another Mysterious Jack-Pot of Strange Cave Art with People Amputated Their Own Fingers

It is extremely daunting that people from Paleolithic ancient era living at France and Spain chopped off their own fingers ranged from 1 – 4 missing digits, as seen in paintings over parts of stencil.

Archaeologists have been debating since ages that the missing fingers are deliberate. They assume that this may be due to some practices such as religious ritual, mark marriage, punishment, and mark fisher-women. Some believe it may be children mocking, bent fingers or artistic gestures alike.

Reference:

McCauley, B., D. Maxwell, and M.J.J.O.P.A. Collard, A Cross-cultural Perspective on Upper Paleolithic Hand Images with Missing Phalanges. 2018: p. 1-20.

new planets K2-187

6. Space and Ground Based Telescopes Have Discovered More Than 100 Exoplanets

Astronomers from University of Tokyo and Astrobiology Center of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences have recently reported 104 confirmed extrasolar planets hunted by Kepler space telescope’s successor K2.

Some planets have extremely small orbital periods less than 24 hours, some of others are rocky exoplanets with mass about more or less compared to mass of earth.

Reference:

John H. et al., Sixty Validated Planets from K2 Campaigns 5–8. The Astronomical Journal, 2018; 156 (6): 277.

OFC mood booster

7. Want to Relieve Depression? Researches May Have Found the Solution to Boost your Mood

Scientists investigated patients suffering from epilepsy and depression, and gave some electrical stimulations via electrodes (used to pinpoint origin of epileptic seizers) to a brain region called lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) to boost their mood.

They noted that, this electric stimulation to the superficial OFC reduced the depression, boosted positive mood based on collected verbal and questionnaire scores. Additionally, they hope to develop a medical device for clinical practice.

Reference:

Vikram R. Rao, et al., Direct Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Acutely Improves Mood in Individuals with Symptoms of Depression. Current Biology, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.10.026

Fermi 739 blazars

8. Astronomers Used Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to measure all starlight of 90% of History of Universe

Scientists used Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and measured extragalactic background light (EBL) including ultraviolet, visible and infrared light traveling across the cosmos stars have produced over the universe’s history depending on the source still exists or burned out.

Researchers investigated gamma-ray (highest form of energy) signals from 739 blazars — galaxies with monster black holes at their centers — gathered over nine years by Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT). Consequently, revealing the peak of star formation about 10 billion years ago.

Reference:

Science, F.-L.C.J., A gamma-ray determination of the Universe’s star formation history. 2018. 362(6418): p. 1031-1034.

Researchers from University of Edinburgh Revealed Cave Art Proof of Humans Practicing Astronomy 17,000 Years Ago

Posted Leave a commentPosted in History, Research, Science
cave art

A scene painted on a cave wall in excess of 15,000 thousand years ago seems to recount the amazing story of a hunter falling before an eviscerated monster. Finding for some hidden meaning, the pictures may depict something greater. Perhaps cosmic.

 

Figures portrayed in the renowned ancient canvases at Lascaux were situated with reason, as indicated by a crisp examination of the work of art. These weren’t minor tales about hunting. They were indications of the zodiac masterminded to record a noteworthy calamitous occasion.

 

Scientists from the Universities of Edinburgh and Kent thought about zoomorphic works of art found at Neolithic destinations around the globe, from Göbekli Tepe and Çatalhöyük in Turkey to the caverns close Montignac in southwestern France.

 

Portrayals of recognizable looking creatures, for example, bulls, lions, and scorpions, aren’t intended to speak to commonplace looking scenes, they contend. Rather, they could symbolize groups of stars, and in that capacity speak to an early type of galactic record-keeping.

 

"Early give in craftsmanship demonstrates that individuals had propelled information of the night sky inside the last Ice Age," says one of the investigation's author, chemical engineer Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh.

Assuming genuine, scenes drawn at Lascaux may rather check the date of a noteworthy occasion that harmonized with a yearly Taurid meteor shower around 17,000 years ago.

 

Sound somewhat commonplace? A year ago similar scientists decoded stone carvings found at Göbekli Tepe as references to a comet strike thought to be in charge of a brief come back to Ice Age atmosphere conditions around 13,000 years ago.

 

This new examination makes their investigation a stride further by applying it to other Neolithic craftsmanship pieces from different locales and eras.

 

Lascaux’s depictions were found by a neighborhood gathering of teens during the 1940s, and we’ve been scratching our heads over them from that point onward. It’s not clear precisely when they were made, but rather specialists gauge the 600 pictures scattered over the walls are anyplace up to 17,000 years of age.

 

A considerable lot of the figures are of creatures that would have lived inside the neighborhood district, including horses and buffalo like creatures called aurochs.

 

The pictures referred to by and large as the Shaft Scene incorporate a human figure calculated by an auroch, which has circles of its digestive organs dangling from its belly.

 

Adjacent there is something that looks somewhat like a duck, while a rhinoceros turns away to one side. A horse head is portrayed on another area of the wall.

 

We would all be able to speculate surmises why someone would go to the inconvenience of slithering inside a buckle to ponderously write a man toppling over before a gutted creature while a bird creepily watches on and a rhino imagines not to see … and a lot of history specialists have their assessments.

 

Caverns are viewed as otherworldly places connected with gods and so forth, so it’s conceivable these pictures were drawn looking for genuine support before a chase, similar to an ancient list of things to get or a type of prayer.

 

However, different scientists have seen the closeness of different creatures around the caverns is by all accounts not exactly irregular. The French anthropologist André Leroi-Gourhan figured, thinking back to the 1960s this spoke to a type of characterization framework, of good and malicious or male and female.

 

There are likewise geometric shapes, dabs, and odd lines scattered all through the pictures, and which are difficult to represent on the off chance that they were endeavors to practically draw regular settings.

 

The possibility that they could by one way or another reflect not peaceful scenes but rather heavenly ones has been talked about for over 40 years.

 

Sweatman and his associate from the University of Kent, Alistair Coombs, now contend this is the correct methodology, and that we should give our predecessors more credit with regards to speaking to the world.

 

“Logically, they were not really any unique to us today,” says Sweatman.

 

Like Göbekli Tepe’s Vulture Stone, the Shaft Scene demonstrates a human figure who is by all accounts dying, almost four noticeable creatures.

 

The scientists contend the injured buffalo speaks to the group of stars Capricorn at summer equinox, and the fledgling stands in for Libra at spring equinox. Alternate creatures are more theoretical, however could without much of a stretch match Leo and Taurus at alternate equinoxes.

 

This plan could mark a date of 15,150 BCE, plus or minus two or three centuries, indicating at an occasion that may have affected people in a not exactly wonderful way.

 

Records taken from Greenland’s ice centers do recommend the atmosphere started to move around 15,300 BCE, however there are no signs this was caused by a type of shooting star affect.

 

We’ve been cutting and painting creatures for a huge number of years, and it’s not in every case clear why we do it.

 

The 40,000-year-old cutting of an upstanding lion found in the Hohlenstein collapse Germany is another odd-ball model that is gone to the consideration of Sweatman and Coombs.

 

“These discoveries bolster a hypothesis of numerous comet impacts throughout human improvement, and will likely reform how ancient populaces are seen,” says Sweatman.

 

Almost certainly antiquarians will keep on argueing over the significance of antiquated craftsmanship for quite a while to come.

 

In the event that anything, these discoveries indicate we may need to proceed onward from entirely shamanistic understandings, to consider craftsmanship to be indispensable to marking time dependent on a striking element of the earth we regularly neglect in our cutting edge world – the night sky.

 

Reference:

Sweatman, M.B. and A.J.A.P.A. Coombs, Decoding European Palaeolithic art: Extremely ancient knowledge of precession of the equinoxes. 2018.