What to know about Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)?

Introduction of Ebola:

Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious viral infection, frequently deadly condition in people and nonhuman primates. Ebola is one of a few viral hemorrhagic fevers, caused by contamination with an infection of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus.





The casualty rates of Ebola change contingent upon the strain. For instance, Ebola-Zaire can have a casualty rate of up to 90 percent while Ebola-Reston has never caused a casualty in people.

The contamination is transmitted by coordinate contact with the blood, body liquids, and tissues of tainted creatures or individuals. Extremely sick patients require serious steady care. Ebola infection sickness (EVD) is regularly portrayed by the sudden beginning of fever, extreme shortcoming, muscle torment, cerebral pain, and sore throat.

Ebola tends to spread rapidly through families and companions as they are presented to irresistible discharges when looking after a sicken person. The duration from disease with Ebola to the beginning of manifestations ranges from 2-21 days.


Facts on Ebola: 

  • Ebola is considered a zoonotic virus, meaning that it originated in animals and then spread to the humans.
  • No vaccine available, many in development.
  • One vaccine, called Ebola ça suffit, was found to be 100 percent effective in a trial involving 4,000 people in Guinea.

Symptoms of Ebola: 

The time interval from infection with Ebola to the onset of symptoms is 2-21 days, although 8-10 days is most common. Signs and symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Lack of appetite

Supplementary symptoms include:

  • Rash
  • Red eyes
  • Hiccups
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Chest pain
  • Difficult breathing
  • Difficult swallowing
  • Internal and external bleeding
  • Low white blood cells (WBC) & Platelets
  • Elevated liver enzymes

Ebola virus was isolated from the semen of an infected man 61 days after the onset of illness.

Ebola Virus Incubation in Humans


  • Balance fluids and electrolytes
  • Maintain oxygen status and blood pressure
  • No vaccine available

Research in progress with test vaccines:

  • cAd3-ZEBOV – developed by GlaxoSmithKline in collaboration with United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH). It uses a chimpanzee-derived adenovirus vector with an Ebola virus gene inserted.
  • rVSV-ZEBOV – developed by Public Health Agency of Canada in Winnipeg with NewLink Genetics, a company, located in Ames, IA. The vaccine uses a weakened virus found in livestock; one of its genes has been replaced by an Ebola virus gene.
  • Ebola ca Suffit vaccine – 100 percent efficacy in the trial in Guinea involving 4,000 people. Results were published in Lancet in February 2017.

 Ebola preventive measures: 

  • Healthcare workers & uncontracted people/family members should wear protective clothing (such as masks, gowns, and gloves)
  • Equipment sterilization and routine use of disinfectant
  • Isolation of Ebola patients
  • Needle disposal

Read guidelines from WHO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help prevent and control the spread of Ebola – Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers In the African Healthcare Setting.

Causes of Ebola: 

  • Ebolavirus and Filoviridae family
  • Ebola is zoonosis, virus is present in animals and is transmitted to humans
  • In Africa, people have contracted Ebola after usage of infected animals found ill or dead, including chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope, and porcupines.
  • Person-to-person transmission occurs after someone infected with Ebolavirus becomes symptomatic (2 and 21 days for symptoms to appear). Person with Ebola in contact with hundreds of people, lead to an outbreak, hard to control and may spread rapidly.

Ebola history and transmission in humans:

Transmission of Ebola:

  • Direct contact through broken skin and mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs, or other body fluids of infected people.
  • Indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids.
  • Exposure to contaminated objects, such as needles.
  • Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased.
  • Exposure to the semen of people with Ebola or who have recovered from the disease – the virus can still be transmitted through semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.
  • Contact with patients with suspected or confirmed EVD – healthcare workers have frequently been infected while treating patients.
  • There is no evidence that Ebola can be spread via insect bites.

Discover and outbreaks:

  • Outbreaks in West African countries such as Liberia.
  • First cases of Ebola reported in 1976 in Yambuku, near the Ebola River (Ebola named after the river) in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and in Nzara, Sudan.


Ebola Discovery and Transmission


Asymptomatic cases of Ebola outbreaks in humans and animals in other locations:

  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Sudan (South Sudan)
  • Senegal
  • United Kingdom
  • United States (U.S.)
  • Philippines
  • Italy
  • Spain
  • Gabon
  • Ivory Coast
  • South Africa
  • Russia
  • Uganda
  • Guinea
  • Liberia
  • Sierra Leone

Largest Ebola outbreak was in 2014:

  • The 2014 Ebola outbreak was the largest in history, primarily affecting Guinea, northern Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
  • In the U.S., reports indicate that there have been two imported cases, including one death, and two locally acquired cases in healthcare workers.
  • Few cases in Nigeria, Mali, and Senegal

Risk factors:

  • Traveling African areas with cases of Ebola.
  • Experiments on apes (monkeys) imported from Africa or the Philippines.
  • Healthcare exposed to Ebola.
  • Contraction with burial of deceased patients infected with Ebola.

Diagnostics according to the WHO:

  • Samples from patients with Ebola are an extreme biohazard risk.
  • Testing should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.
  • Isolation of Ebola patients.
  • Public health professionals should be notified immediately.
  • Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed ultimately in a laboratory through several kinds of tests, including Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, IgM ELISA, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Virus isolation.
  • Diagnostics by using IgM and IgG antibodies in more advanced stages of the disease. Ebola can be diagnosed retrospectively in deceased patients by other forms of testing.

Note: contents in this article have been created from various resources.