The hunt for the Dark Matter

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Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

An exorbitant and dubious space-based cosmic ray identifier has discovered conceivable indications of dark matter, the undetectable stuff thought to supply a large portion of the universe’s mass. Or on the other hand so says Samuel Ting, a particel physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and pioneer of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is roosted on the International Space Station (ISS).

In 2014, AMS scientists revealed a surprising motion of positrons that kicked in at energies over 10 giga-electron volts (GeV) and appeared to blur by around 300 GeV. The abundance could emerge out of dark matter particles impacting and obliterating each other to deliver electron-positron sets, and the energy of the falloff may point to the mass of the dark matter particles. Presently, with three fold the number of information, AMS specialists have unmistakably settled that energy cutoff. The positron abundance begins at 25 GeV and falls forcefully at 284 GeV, the 227-part AMS group detailed in Physical Review Letters. “It’s critical in light of the fact that you do begin to see a turnaround” in the energy range, Olinto says. The cutoff is steady with substantial dark matter particles with a mass of around 800 GeV, the scientists report.

Credits:

AGUILAR ET AL., PHYS. REV. LETT.122, 041102, (2019) 

Astronomers Reveal Composition of Neutron Stars

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Composition of neutron stars

The neutron star watched is a piece of a high-mass X-ray parallel framework—the conservative, inconceivably thick neutron star matched with a huge ‘ordinary’ supergiant star. Neutron stars in parallel frameworks create X-rays when material from the binary star falls toward the neutron star and is quickened to high speeds. Because of this increasing speed, X-rays are delivered that can in turn connect with the materials of the stellar wind to create secondary X-rays of mark energies at different distances from the neutron star. Unbiased—uncharged—iron atoms, for instance, deliver fluorescence X-rays with energies of 6.4 kilo-electron volts (keV), about 3000 times the energy of visible light. Space experts use spectrometers, similar to the instrument on Chandra, to catch these X-rays and separate them dependent on their energy to find out about the structure of stars.

Reference:

Pragati Pradhan, et al., “Multitude of iron lines including a Compton-scattered component in OAO 1657 – 415 detected with Chandra,” MNRAS, 2019; doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3441

How to Steal Energy from a Black Hole?

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Steal Energy from Black hole

Novel simulations driven by analysts working at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley consolidate decades-old speculations to give new understanding about the driving instruments in the plasma streams that enable them to steal energy from black holes’ incredible gravitational fields and impel it a long way from their vast mouths.

This reenactment demonstrates a spinning black hole (bottom) and a collisionless plasma stream (top). The simulation demonstrates the densities of electrons and positrons, and magnetic field lines. The black hole’s “ergosurface,” within which all particles must turn indistinguishable way from the hole, is appeared green. (Credit: Kyle Parfrey et al./Berkeley Lab)

Reference:

Kyle Parfrey, et al., “First-Principles Plasma Simulations of Black-Hole Jet Launching,” Physical Review Letters, 2018; doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.035101